Sunday, 18 March 2018


Here we have a very interesting subject; a difficult period in which the context of Russia, the enormous country governed by the Tsar, change drastically while the economic situation of the world led to the rising of totalitarianism. At the same time, the fight for women´s rights continued...

Monday, 5 March 2018

the executioners unit 5

8th October 1916


Tired of fighting, the British and German troops come together to play football, forgetting their differences.

These Christmas of 1914 took place a truce between Germans and British on the border between German and French lands. During this truce both troops held several football matches in no man`s land. Now the truth comes to light thanks to the interview we have been able to make to an old soldier wounded in the trenches that participated in these football matches.

These are the statements:

Q: How were the days in the trenches?
A: The days were very hard, the cold, hunger and diseases made it an agony. The noise of the shots and the grenades instead os the sound os the birds, the heartrending screams of men leaving broken families, was a real torture. Every night we went to sleep giving thanks for having lived another day but afraid it was our last day.
Q: What kind of diseases did you get?
A: The conditions in which we were, made us contract tuberculosis and pneumonias but the most frecuent was the so called trench fever caused by infected wounds.
Q: Did you participated in the Christmas truce?
A: Yes, it was the only day in which we rested from all the noises and worries of the war that we had to suffer, you could see how we had many things in common...after all none of us who were there wanted the war.
Q:Tell me more about the day of the truce.
A: We played a soccer match in no man`s land, it was incredible how we could understand each other despite being opponents. But after finishing the truce everything came back to the violence, pain and suffering.
Q:What is the hardest thing you`ve seen?
A: The hardest thing I`ve seen has been that in an attack my brother and I were going togheter and suddenly a bullet went through his head, I could see how his gesture froze and his whole body fell to the floor leaving his wife`s letters whitout answers.
Q:Which is the hardest things you have done?
A: Kill so many people and have destroyed so many families, left orphan children.

As we can see the conditions in the trenches were horrible and we wait that all the soldiers who survived can live in peace.

Friday, 2 March 2018

The Kings Unit 5

24th October, 1873

Foreign policy

The great emperors are joined

The last saturday, 22nd of October, the leaders of the three most powerfull countries in Europe: Wilhelm I of  the German Empire, Tsar Alexander II with the Russian Empire and Franz Joseph of the Austria-Hungarian Empire; agreed to cooperate between them and against France and the governments of liberal ideas.

Resultado de imagen de otto von bismarck
Otto von Bismark
The idea of this agreement come of Germany and particularly of the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck due to his plan to keep France isolated and away from any diplomatic alliance, and to keep Austria-Hungary and Russia as potential allies of the German Empire. With this plan Bismarck avoided that, after the defeat of 1870 in the Franco-Prussian War of the Third French Republic, France could obtaine some external support if it tried a warlike conflict with Germany to recover the regions of Alsace and Lorraine.

Resultado de imagen de los tres emperadores
Wilhelm I, Franz Joseph and Tsar Alexander II 
Germany first began with the negotations
with Austria and then Russia, that fears the strength of this new alliance, considered that was best to join it. The saturday, the "League of the Three Emperors" was
formed, which unites Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia and that presents a strong opposition against France, and also against socialism. Althought the agreement was successfully carried out, the rest of Europe suspect that it can't last for a long time  because, both, Russia and Austria want the control of the Balkans.

The agreemnet between the three leaders guarantees the neutrality of their countries in case of conflict with another nation. They want to consolidate the general peace through an understanding and to assure the defensive position of their respective States, they have reached an agreement on certain issues that affect their reciprocal interests.

We hope that the agreement come only with good news for the rest of Europe and no more conflicts.

Wednesday, 28 February 2018

The Emperors, Unit 5

The United States enters in the Great War!

Almost 2 years after the Lusitania´s sinking, President Wilson declares war to Germany

As you all know, on the morning of 6 May, Lusitania was 750 miles (1,210 km) west of southern Ireland.

The torpedo struck Lusitania under the bridge, sending a plume of debris, steel plating and water upward and knocking lifeboat number five off its davits. A second, more powerful explosion followed, sending a geyser of water, coal, dust and debris high above the deck. Many lifeboats overturned while loading or lowering, spilling passengers into the sea; others were overturned by the ship's motion when they hit the wáter. Lusitania sank in only 18 minutes, 11.5 miles (19 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale.  More tan 100 americans died.

Almost 2 years later, on April 2nd, Wilson spoke before Congress. With a deep sense of the solemn and tragic step he was taking, he told the parliamentarians that they should consider the German actions as a declaration of war against the government and the people of the United States.

The armed neutrality had been ineffective, since it was impossible to implement to defend the ships against the attacks of German submarines.

"We have nothing against the German people, our only feelings towards them are sympathy and friendship," Wilson said. But, he added, "the world must be a safe place for democracy to exist."
President Wilson

Dictators Unit 5

Germany extremely punished.

A new treaty has been signed in Versailles punishing the guilty countries of the war.

 The Treaty of Versailles has been signed on 28 June and consisted of 440 Articles setting out the terms for Germany's punishment who lost the 13 per cent of its territory and the most of the German´s colonies that had been redistributed among the other colonial powers. The small but industrially important Saar region has started to be governed by Britain and France and its coal is going to be exported to France in recompense for the French coal mines destroyed by Germany during the war. The treaty has been recieved with pleased in the German country. 

The ´Big Four´
 Germany actually has three weeks to comply. The German government is complaining that they have not been consulted the terms of the treaty. They argued that "is nothing less than a dictate" set by the representatives of the Allies, from left to right are; David Lloyd George for Great Britain, Vittorio Orlando for Italy, Georges Clemenceau for France and Woodrow Wilson for the US.

 The principal commands for the guilty of the war are:

1. The German army has to be restricted to 100.000 men, the navy is restricted to six battleships and no submarines. It can not have tanks or an air force.
Germany territory losses.

2. Germany has to return Alsace-Lorraine to France and the German region of east Prussia has to be separated from the rest of the country by a corridor of land that will be govern by Poland.

3. The Germans have to pay reparations of the European allies. Been total summatory 132 billion gold marks.

4. It had to sing the war-guilt clause.

5. Germany has to give all his colonies to Great Britain and France.

After this hard episode Europe has to recover, carry on and restart following paths of peace.

Monday, 26 February 2018


World War I has inspired movies, comics, songs, books and other artistic manifestations. The film that we are going to watch is considered a classic, and its director one of the most recognized, acclaimed and at the same time controversial of the history of cinema. Paths of Glory is a pacifist story that tells about the horror of war and injustice. I hope it will make you reflect.

Here I leave you the exercise that you must complete after watching the movie. The last day to deliver it is Tuesday, March 20. To find out how your evaluation will be, see the rubric we used for the previous film with which we work.


Sans Culottes - Unit 5

Thursday 30th, June 1914

The terrible tragedy of Sarajevo

The empire of Austria Hungary lose their heir

Franz Ferdinand
The last Sunday, June 28 a terrible tragedy happened in the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The attack occurred at first hour in the morning while his vehicle circulated in an official visit to the city of Sarajevo.
There were several failed attempts to kill them that morning, the most important was a cyanide bomb that caused several injuries. After this incident, the driver of the official car deviates from the established route to avoid the attackers, with the bad luck of getting lost and being with the cause of the inevitable death of the dukes.
The moment of the attempt.
 This man shot twice against the car in which the dukes were. One of the bullets reached Franz Ferdinand the chest and another one bounced and reached sofia which was pregnant with 9 months. Both died after 20 minutes. Franz Ferninand was very scrupulous in his costumes and always wore his clothes well pressed and buttoned, to the point of wearing the lapels of his shirt and jacket sewn in the military parades so that they would not move with the wind. The day of the murder he wore the stitched coat, this was one of the reasons why it was not possible to succor in time. 
All those involved in the attacks have been caught and will be judged according to their charges.
Sources close to Emperor Franz Joseph the 1st point to the fact that the last heir to the throne of Austria Hungary will be Charles of Habsburg-Lorraine and Saxony.

You can watch a animated recreation of the attempt here.

Tuesday, 13 February 2018

Sans Culottes - Group 5

October 3rd, 1864

The creation of the I.W.A

Good news for the workers and the proletariat

Marx talking in St. Martin's Hall in September
To start good this October, we bring some good news for workers across Europe, a new Association is born to help them.
The I.W.A (Interational Workers Association) was founded in London at Saint Martin's Hall, in September 28th, forming a committee whose mission was to draft a program and statutes for the Association. It is considered a response to the exploitation suffered by workers as a result of the industrial revolution. Its goal is to achieve a more just and equitable social order, fighting against capitalism. It is a symbol of international solidarity among workers across borders.

The assembly of delegates has chosen a provisional committee where Chartists, trade unionists, socialists of different tendencies and followers of Proudhon are found.
Some notorious members are Louis Auguste Blanqui,  a  french socialist and political activist, Giuseppe Garibaldi, a italian politician and general, and Friedrich Engels, co-writer of the Communist Manifiesto with the chosen one to write the statutes, Karl Marx. The statutes highlights several ideas:

Promotional poster of the I.W.A
· The International should not abolish national associations, but enhance their activity on a global scale.

· The emancipation of the working class would be the work of the workers themselves.

· There would be no emancipation without struggle for political power.

We hope that the organization achieves its purposes and spread throughout the world to provide better conditions for workers.

For more info you have this: video
And the original news of the creation of the I.W.A here

Thursday, 8 February 2018


This is a very interesting period of History. Tensions between European countries led to a conflict the world had never witnessed before. Its consequences would be terrible...

Pay attention to the presentation; there are some surprises in it.

The next video will help you to understand better and to study the unit. Enjoy it!!

The Emperors - Unit 4

Robert Owen has bought New Lanark Mills

The 27-year-old young bussinessman, Robert Owen, has converted New Lanark Mills in a "Working Paradise" and has provided opportunities for children.

In 1799 Robert Owen, at the age of twenty-seven, ended the purchase of the Dale factory holdings in New Lanark, Scotland, and married Anne Caroline Dale soon there after.

As the manager of the New Lanark Mills, which employed more two thousand people, (including around five hundred children whose working life had begun at the age of five or six when they had left Edinburgh or Glasgow workhouses), Robert Owen introduced a yet more human and progressive employment regime than the one that had been in place under David Dale. No child younger than ten years old was employed and these were allowed relatively decent breaks for meals and some modestly worth while educational opportunities. As far as adult employees went he sought to introduce some new machinery, to improve the flow of work through the factory, and to quietly discourage pilfering and drunkenness.

New Lanark gained international fame when Owen's experiments in enhancing his workers' environment resulted in increased productivity and profit. Robert Owen spent considerable amounts of money on improving housing conditions in New Lanark, arranging the public refuse system, and for the paving of its streets. He also arranged for a company store that sold goods of higher quality and at lower prices than the stores that had previously been available in the area. This store managed to make a profit that Owen diverted towards funding a school for the worker's children leading to the establishment of the first infant school in Great Britain through Owen's support for the educational efforts of James Buchanan.